By Doctor Gil Dekel.
The Yahya (יחייא) family can be traced some 1000 years back to the 11th century Portugal, and before that to the Hebrew Exilarchs of ancient Babylonia. This article looks at the origin and meanings of the name ‘Yahya’ and ‘Ibn Yahya’, sharing short biographies of some members of the family. Researching this family is not an easy task because of the many variations of the name used in different countries, languages, and historical times. The name Yahya was used as a first name, and later on as a family name. Another challenge is the fact that children were sometimes named after their fathers.
Abraham Isaac Laredo’s book – Les Noms Des Juifs Du Maroc: Essai d’onomastique judéo-marocaine. (Photo: Gil Dekel).
Chiya al-Daudi (חייא אל-דאודי), born circa 1080-1090, was the progenitor of the Ibn Yahya family of Portugal and Spain [see number 76 in this article]. The name al-Daudi is Arabic name referring to a descendant of David ben Zakai (Rosh Golah, died year 940) who himself was descendant of King David.
Chiya al-Daudi was a composer, poet, and advisor to the King of Portugal. His hymns are still used in Sephardic congregations throughout the world.
The word ‘Chiya’ stands for the Hebrew Hayyim (Chaimחיים ), meaning ‘life’. It is also spelled Yachya, Hiya, and Yahia. A nickname for the name Yahia is Vivante.
The name Chiya takes various forms in Arabic writing. In the 11th century in Lisbon, the name was known as Ya’ish, meaning ‘he will live’ or simply ‘life’. Other forms were Ayush, Wa’ish, and Yahya. Members of the family bore the appellation Abulaish, meaning ‘father of life.’ This became Bulaix in 13th century Barcelona.
Other common written forms of Yaish which appear in ancient Spanish documents are Abenahaya, Binaffia, Abenafia, Bar Hiya (Bar Chiya (Bar means ‘son of’ in Hebrew)), Aben Yahie, and Haya. A further written form of the name for life was Amron.
The name was often preceded by the sign of a filial relationship – ‘the son of’ – ‘Ben’ (Hebrew) and ‘Ibn’ (Arabic), hence Ben Hayyim, Ibn Hayyim, and Ibn Yahya.
The son of Chiya al-Daudi was Yaish Ibn Yahya (יאיש איבן יחייא), born circa 1110-1120. He may have been a military leader in North Africa [see number 77 in this article].
Yaish’s son, Don Yahya Ibn Yaish “Ha-Nasi” ((דון יחייא איבן יאיש, הנשיא, was born circa 1150. ‘Ha-Nasi’ stands for ‘the president’ in Hebrew, referring to a lofty person [see number 78].
The written form of the name Ibn Yaish in ancient Spanish documents also appears as: Abingais, Alaish, Avinayes, Ibn Alaish, Abenayes, Abenaix, Aben Jaes, Abenayex, Aben Ayish, Abeniex, Abenaex, and Belais.
Don Yahya Ibn Yaish “Ha-Nasi” was the eponymous of the branch of the family that lived in Lisbon, Portugal, which became to be known as the ‘lbn Yahya’ family.
One of Don Yahya’s descendant was the author Gedaliah ben Yosef Ibn Yahya (גדליה בן יוסף, איבן-יחייא), who wrote the book Shalshelet HaKabballah (‘Chain of Tradition’). Gedaliah writes about his ancestor, Don Yahya:
ושם האיש היהודי היה הרב דון יחייא ן׳ יעיש […] ומזה השר התחילו זרעו ודורותיו להקרא ממשפחת יחייא […]
And the name of that Jewish man was Rabbi Don Yahya Ben Yaish […] and from this minister his children and their children were known as the Yahya family.
The name Yahya was now used as a family name, by this branch of the family.
The story goes that Don Yahya Ibn Yaish “Ha-Nasi” was honoured for services in support of King Alfonso I. After the conquest of Santarem, the King gave him a gift of several villages that had belonged to the Moorish Arabs (known as ‘Negros’). A head of a Moor was added to his coat of arms, hence he adopted the name Negro – Yahya el Negro.
The great-grandchild of Don Yahya Ibn Yaish “Ha-Nasi” was also named Don Yahya. This Don Yahya was brother of Shlomo Ibn Yahya ha-Zaken [see number 81]. The author, Gedaliah Ibn Yahya, writes that ‘Ibn’ was added to the family name by the children of Don Yahya (Don Yahya the great-grandchild) :
[…]שבניו אחריו קראו שם משפחתם ן’ יחייא על שמו.
[…] and his sons used the surname Ibn Yahya, after his name.
Short biographies of other Ibn Yahya members:
Yosef Ibn Yahya Ha-Zaken (יוסף אבן יחייא, הזקן): born in 1210, and lived in Lisbon where he constructed, at his own expense, a large synagogue. He was the author of a commentary on the Talmud which no longer exists [see number 80 in this list].
Shlomo lbn Yahya Ha-Zaken (שלמה איבן יחייא, הזקן): son of Yosef (above); died before 1300. He cautioned against the taste for luxury among his coreligionists, as he wanted to prevent jealousy and hatred from the Christians.
Don Aharon Ben Yahya (דון אהרון בן יחייא): founder of a synagogue at Calatayud before the 14th century [mentioned in 82A].
Yosef ben Shlomo lbn Yahya (יוסף בן שלמה איבן יחייא): celebrated for his physical beauty as well as for his skilful poetry [82A]. Brother of Gedaliah (below), he left Portugal and returned to Castille with his brother. He composed an elegy on the death of his master Shlomo ben Aderet. This has often been included in anthologies. Several other poems that he composed were lost in a fire. He repaired, at his own expense, the synagogue at Calatayud, which was built by his ancestor Aharon Ibn (Ben) Yahya.
Gedaliah Ibn Yahya Ha-Zaken (גדליה איבן יחייא, הזקן): brother of Yosef (above). Gedaliah was physician to King Ferdinand until 1370 when he lost favour [82B]. He then entered the service of Henry of Castille and was in charge of the Jewish communities in Henry’s Kingdom.
Yehuda ben David Ibn Yahya Negro (יהודה בן דוד איבן יחייא, נגרו): born in Toledo [84C]; emigrated with his brother Salomom (Shlomo) in 1391 to Portugal. There he served a long time in the service of Queen Philippa. Yehuda was consort of King Joao I, upon whom he had influence. Vincent Ferrer, the anti-Semitic instigator of violence against the Jewish community, solicited information from Joao to use as propaganda against the Jews, but Yehuda persuaded Joao to overturn Ferrer’s plans.
One of the great poets of his time, he composed numerous elegies on the horrors that the Jews people had gone through in Spain. Among his works is a Quinah (lament, poem of sorrow) for Tisha B’Av (תשעה באב), the annual fast day in Judaism. The author, Gedaliah Ibn Yahya, writes:
[…] דון יהודה היה […] נעים זמירות ומלא רוח חכמה ודעת וחבר חבורים והי׳ חותם בתשובותיו נ״י ב״י שר״ל נאם יהודה בן יחייא. והוא חבר הקינה שבתשעה באב במחזור ויולד בנים ובנות.
[…] Don Yehuda was […] a pleasant person, full of songs and wisdom, and he wrote articles and would sign his responsa [letters] with N’Y B’Y [נ״י ב״י, which stands in Hebrew for ‘The words of Yehuda Ben Yahya’]. He wrote the Quinah in the book of Tisha B’Av, and he had sons and daughters.
Landshuth suggests that this Quinah appears in Mahzor Sepharad (prayer book of the Jews who originated from Spain/Portugal). Landshuth writes:
דון יהודה בר דוד אבן יחייא. ממשפחת בעל השלשלת כמוזכר ממנו שם (דפוס אמ״ד) דף מ״ט ואמר עלי'[ו] שהיה נעים זמירות ומלא רוח חכמה ודעת וחבר הקנה שבמחזור לט׳ באב. ולפי דבריו שם ולפי מ״ש כרמולי (דה״י לבני יחייא צד 12) חיה בשנת ה״א קנ”א ליצירה שהיה אז שמד גדול בספרד (יוחסין דפוס אמ״ר דף ק״א). ואין ספק שהקנה אשר רמז עליה השלשלת היא המתחלת יהודה וישראל ונמצאת במחזור ספרר ובסדר ד’ צומות ק״ק קרפינטראץ ובתחלתה חתום יהודה בן דוד ובסופה יהודה בן דוד יחיה. וע’ שם בכרמולי שמביא עוד ג׳ פיוטים האחד מפרק י”ז מס’ שקל הקדש תחלתו אל אל אשר ברא, והב’ קנה מקובץ כ״י אשר תחלתה נדפס שם בטעות : יהידה לא תנצא (??) וברית לא תחשה, והג’: אומר בלבי מר לנפשי.
Eliakim Carmoly suggests that one of Yehuda’s Quinah is the ‘Yehudah ve-Israel de’u mar li meod’ (יהודה וישראל דעו מר לי מאוד) ‘Jehuda and Israel, know that I feel the bitterness’. It was still chanted on Tisha B’Av (תשעה באב) in Moroccan synagogues as back as 1850. I noted that a Quinah that starts with these same words is still in use today.
Another elegy on the persecutions of 1391 in Seville, Andalucia, Castile, Provence, and Aragon was published in book Amude ha-Abodah (עמודי העבודה) by Landshuth.
Carmoly (page 12, citing from David ben Solomon Ibn Yahya’s article Shekel ha-kodesh ) mentions three poems, and suggests that Yehuda was also the author of Responsa and numerous Piyyutim which are used to this day.
Gedaliah ben Salomon Ibn Yahya [85B]: Known as Master Guedelha Fysico; he was a philosopher and astrologer, born in Lisbon ca 1400. Served as astrologer to the court of King Joao I. The King died in 1433 and his son Duarte was preparing for his coronation. Gedaliah counselled Duarte, predicting that his reign would be brief and miserable. When Duarte fell sick, he attributed his affliction to the predictions of Gedaliah and took severe measures against the Jews in revenge.
Salomon (Shlomo) ben David Ibn Yahya [86C]: Grand Rabbi of Lisbon during 15th century. Enjoyed great influence with King Alfonso V. Foreseeing the coming persecutions, he protected his family by preventing an ostentatious display of wealth (and thus preventing jealousy). Shlomo died in Lisbon, where his tomb still exists.
David Ibn Yahya : Grammarian and philosopher, son of the martyred Don Yosef; born in Lisbon 1465, died in lmola in 1543. Evicted from Spain in 1492. He emigrated to Italy and was named Grand Rabbi of Naples in 1518. He was forced to leave Naples in 1540. In 1532 he was busy repurchasing captive Jews in Tunis (hence freeing them), and transporting them to Naples. Author of numerous works on grammar, philosophy, and Hebrew, and the Dine Terefot.
Dinah Ibn Yahya [read more here]. Wife of David (above). Disguised as a man, she escaped persecution with her father-in-law and husband. Fleeing Portugal, she arrived in Pisa, then occupied by France. Fearful of the French troops, she hid in the summit of a 20 metre tower (the story argues that the tower was the Leaning Tower of Pisa). Upon being discovered she leaped from the tower and miraculously was not severely hurt. She went to Florence where she gave birth to Yosef (below).
Yosef ben David Ibn Yahya : Son of David and Dinah (above), exegete and philosopher, born in Florence in 1494, died in Imola, 1539. Author of Torah Or, a theological treatise published in Bologna, 1537-38, and commentaries on Torah and hagiography.
Yosef ben David Ibn Yahya the Martyr [86D]: Born in Portugal in 1425, intimate friend of King Alfonso V, who dubbed him the Jewish Sage. However, Alfonso blamed him for his inability to prevent the Jewish community from displaying their love of luxury. On the other hand, Yosef incurred the wrath of wealthy Spanish Jews who had settled in Portugal, believing that he was trying to keep them down.
Later, King Joao assumed the throne and continued to welcome Jews to his Kingdom. But by 1495 he was attempting to convert them to Catholicism and chose Yosef (and sons David, meir, Solomon) as an example for the first baptism. Yosef took 100,000 crusados (an old Portuguese coin) and fled with his sons David (see above) , Meir, and Shlomo. After being afloat for some time in the Mediterranean, they finally debarked in Castile where he was condemned to be burned at the stake. Due to the intervention of Duke Alvarec of Braganca, he was able to continue his voyage. Five months later, he arrived in Pisa and faced the troops of Charles VIII who were about to take the city. Charles extorted the huge sum of 7,000 gold pieces in exchange for the family’s freedom. Offered the protection of the Duke of Ferrara, he set about encouraging forced converts to return to their ancient confession. However, due to the tortures endured from his tormentors, he died in 1498.
Gedaliah ben Yosef Ibn Yahya (גדליה בן יוסף, איבן-יחייא), writes in the book Shalshelet HaKabballah (‘Chain of Tradition’), pageסג (page 408 in the PDF) .
השר דון יוסף היה השני והוא דור תשיעי לן’ יחייא. והוא אב אבותינו, והיה נמצא אז בליסבונה אשר במלכות פורטוגאלו, ויהי ליועץ אל המלך ההוא. אחר הימים מת אלפונסו המלך ויקם במקומו דון יואן המלך אשר אהב גם הוא השר הנז'[כר] מאד. ויהי היום ויקראהו המלך ויאמ'[ר] לו הנה מרוב אהבתי אותך בחרתי להטיב אליך ולכל ישראל אחיך. ולא ידעתי לעשותו אלא בהצילי את נפשכם מדינה של גהינם, ולכן בחרתי שתמיר אתה וכל בני ביתך, וידעתי שכל ישראל שבמלכותי יעשו כמותך, כי אותך ראיתי שר וגדול עליהם. ויען האיש לא כן יעשה וכו’, ככתוב בארך בספר תולדות יחייא. סוף דבר בראות השר כי כלתה אליו הרעה מאת המלך, וגם להיות כי לא לקחו עצתו קהִלות פורטוגאלו ע”ד [על דבר] גרוש קסטילייה כאשר תראה במקומו, בחר לצאת הוא וכל בני ביתו מגלילות ספרד ולבֹא באיטליאה. ויקרא אליו ג’ בניו הזכרים, שהם הגאון כמה”ר [כבוד מורנו הרב ר’] דוד זקננו שלמטה במקומו נאמ'[ר] ממנו ומזרעו. ושם השני הנבון כמה”ר שלמה שנפטר ברודיש שנת שי”ז  י”ד סיון […] והשלישי היה הנבון כמה”ר מאיר שנפטר בלוילונה בלי בני'[ם] זכרים שנת ר”ץ. ויקח הזקן מן הבא בידו מעות מחושבי’]ם[ כמו נ’ אלף זהב ויבא הוא ובניו בלט לעת ערב על אניה עד פיסא אשר באיטאליא'[ה]. ואח”כ הלך פיורינצה אשר שם נולד הגאון א”א [אדוני אבי] זלה”ה [זיכרונו לחיי העולם הבא], ואח”כ בא פירארה, ושם מת הזקן בשנת רנ”ח לפ”ק [לפרט קטן, 1498], ושלחו בניו עצמותיו לצפת, כאשר צִוה להם אביהם, והם קבורים אצל קבר הושע בן בארי. ויתר הדברי'[ם] ממנו ומבניו הם כתובי'[ם] בספר ד”ה [דברי הימים[ לתולדות בני יחייא.
Gedaliah ben David Ibn Yahya [86B]: Philosopher, born in Lisbon, 1437; died in Constantinople, 1487. Author of Shibah Enayim (Constantinople: 1543 and then Venice) on the seven cardinal virtues of the Jews. In Turkey, he advocated the union of rabbinic Jews with the Karaites.
David ben Shlomo Ibn Yahya [86CA]: Grand Rabbi of Lisbon in 1476; born 1455, died in 1528. Accused of attempting to lure converts back to Judaism, he was condemned to the stake by King Joao II. He fled to Naples with his family but was captured and forced to sell his library to redeem his freedom. Upon being liberated, he went to Corfu and then to Larta where he ended his days in misery. Author of a Hebrew grammar, Leshon Lemudim (Constantinople: 1506, 1528; Venice: 1542); Shequel ha-Kadosh (Constantinople: 1520), a treatise on Hebrew poetry; Tehilah le-David, a commentary on the Rambam’s works; a commentary on Mishnah; and a collection of clarifications of biblical commentators (Venice, 1528; Salonika: 1522). On his trip to Larta he wrote a letter to Isaiah, a rich patron. This letter survives and was published by the historian Graetz.
Yaacov Tam ben David Ibn Yahya [86CAA]: Turkish rabbi, lived between 1475-1542. He is mentioned in the preface to Tummat Yesharina of Binyamin ben Mutal as the author of several works which were destroyed by fire in Constantinople. These included a commentary on Alfassi; Maaseh Nissim, a complement to the Halakhot of Nissim Gerondi; Al ha-Nissim, a commentary on the Halakhot of Rabbenu Nissim. In 1510 Yaacov Tam published Sefer Yossipon by Leon ben Massoni and in 1512 an opinion on Birkat Avraham by Avraham ben Shlomo Treves. He was a member of a congress of rabbis who decided in May 1520 to dissolve the anathema pronounced against Shaltiel, a result which lost his post of prefect to Sultan Suleiman.
Shlomo ben Yosef Ibn Yahya [mentioned in 86D]: Exiled Portuguese Jew who fled to Pisa with his family and alone sailed to Rhodes where he died in 1530.
Yehuda ben Yosef lbn Yahya [mentioned in 88]: Physician, born in lmola, 1529, and died in Bologna, 1560.
David ben Yosef Ibn Yahya [89A]: President of Jewish community of Naples in 1565.
Gedaliah ben Yosef Ibn Yahya (גדליה בן יוסף אבן יחייא) [89B]: Talmudic rabbi, born in lmola, 1515 and died in Alexandria, Egypt, or Alessandria, Italy, ca 1587. Lived in Rovigo from 1549-1562 and later settled in Codiniola and then Salonika, the city of his childhood. Expelled by Pope Pius V and afflicted with the loss of 10,000 pieces of gold, he went to Pesara where he remained until 1575. He then led an errant life for eight years, finally establishing himself in Alexandria. His most notable work is Shalshelet ha-Kabbalah, also known as Sefer Yahya, comprising three parts:
1) a history and genealogy of the Jews from Moses to Moshe Morzi (1587),
2) a description of the celestial bodies, of the creation of the soul, of magic and evil spirits,
3) a history of the people among whom the Jews lived and under whom they suffered.
The book was published in Venice, 1587; Cracow, 1596; Amsterdam, 1697; Zolkiev, 1802, 1804; Polonnoye, 1814; and Lemberg, 1862. Gedaliah is also the presumed author of 24 other works which he mentions in Shalshelet ha-Kabbalah and which are also mentioned in Otzar ha-Sephardim.
Yosef ben Yaacov Tam lbn Yahya [86CAAC]: Born in Constantinople; physician to Sultan Suleiman. Died in battle in 1573. The poet Saadiah Lugo composed an elegy in his honour that was published in Seder Zemamamin. Yosef, edited and published, at his own expense, works of his ancestors, including: Shibat at Enayim, Leshon Limundin, and Shekel ha-Kadosh.
Gedaliah ben Yaacov Tam Ibn Yahya [86CAAA]: Rabbi and physician, died in 1575 in Constantinople. He was a professor and Grand Rabbi in Salonika and Adrianople until 1548, after which he settled in Constantinople and devoted himself to Hebrew studies. He authored several manuscripts.
Tam ben Gedaliah ben Yahya [86CAAAA]: Son of Gedaliah (above), born in Constantinople in the middle of the 16th century. He inherited great fortune from his father which he used to develop Jewish culture. After his father’s death, he moved to Salonika where he was the patron of Jewish poets. His literary activity involved copying and arranging writings of his ancestors including works of Alfassi, Rabbenu Nissim, and Moshe ben Nachman. He completed his compilation in 1595, but his unexpected death came before it was published. Eliezer Shoshan and Meir Yishaqui visited him on his deathbed and agreed to publish the work. It appeared in Venice, 1662 under the title Sheelot u-Teshubot Ohale Shem.
Moshe Ibn Yahya [86CAACB]: 16th century physician in Constantinople. During an epidemic he risked his life to attend the sick and spent a good part of his fortune. He is still a revered celebrity in Turkey for his hospitality, courage, and generosity.
Gedaliah Ibn Yahya [mentioned in 86CAACB]: Son of Moshe (above), born in Salonika, he was a generous supporter of Hebrew literature. He arranged a gathering of 32 of the finest writers to cultivate Hebrew poetry. Among them were Yehuda Zarka and Yisrael Najara. Their names and verses written to honour Gedaliah have been published by Eliakirn Cannoly in Sefer Divre Hayamim L’Bnei Yahya.
Bonsenior Ibn Yahya, also known as Maestro lbn Yahya: author of a poem on chess that first appeared in Mantua, 1549, and in 1702 in a Latin translation that first appeared at Oxford. It also was published in Frankfort-am-Main in 1767.
Shmuel Ibn Yahya: Amsterdam rabbi, 16th-17th century. Author of Treinta Discursos (Amsterdam: 1629).
Reuven ben Shlomo Hezekiah Ibn Yahya: Born late 17th century in Lugo, Italy, where he became Grand Rabbi. Author of HasKamah in preface to Pahad Yitzhak de Lampronti.
Yehuda ben Gedaliah Ibn Yahya: 18th century rabbi in Padua and Venice.
Zechariah Ibn Yahya: Rabbi of Lugo circa 1730. Near the end of his days, he was named President of the Rabbinic Tribunal of that city.
Ben Yaish (Beliash, Beniesh, Ben Yesh, Bennaish)
An Arabic name related to ‘life’, the equivalent of Ben Chaim or lbn Yahya. Ben Yaish was the name used by the prominent 12th century Portuguese family which became Ibn Yahya. The written form of the name in ancient Spanish documents also appears as: Abingais, Ibn Yaish, Alaish, Avinayes, Ibn Alaish, Abenayes, Abenaix, Aben Jaes, Abenayex, Aben Ayish, Abeniex, Abenaex, and Belais.
Don Yahya Ibn Yaich : 12th century, Lisbon, Portugal.
Don Salomon Aben Ayish (Alvaro Mendes): Descendant of Yahya Ibn Yaish (above). Don Salomon (1520-1603) was a Portuguese marrano under the name of Alvaro Mendes. He emigrated to Constantinople where he publicly returned to Judaism. He succeeded Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, as Chief of State and had great influence. He excelled in international diplomacy and was one of the major instigators of the Anglo-Turkish alliance against Spain. Queen Elizabeth of England knighted him for his service. The Sultan made him Duke of Mytilene. He used his influence and his means to come to the aid of the Jewish community in Tiberius, Israel.
11 Dec 2021. © Gil Dekel.
Notes and references:
See ancestry lineage in King David Dynasty: the Charlap family ascension.
This article is based on research conducted by historians, mostly the work of Abraham Isaac Laredo, Gedaliah Ibn Yahya, and Arthur F. Menton.
The book Les Noms Des Juifs Du Maroc: Essai d’onomastique judéo-marocaine by Abraham Isaac Laredo (1895-1968), was published in Madrid by Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto “B. Arias Montano”, 1978. Language: French. ISBN 8400043170.
Parts of this book were translated by Yael-Louise Dekel in 2021. Also, parts of the book were translated and appeared as an article by Arthur F. Menton in the Newsletter of The Worldwide Congregation Charlap/Yahya (volume 10/4, December 1999, and subsequent volumes through to volume 12/4, December 2001).
Laredo, Abraham Isaac. (1978) Les Noms Des Juifs Du Maroc: Essai d’onomastique judéo-marocaine. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto “B. Arias Montano”, 1978. Language: French. Page 581.
Laredo, Abraham Isaac. (1978) Les Noms Des Juifs Du Maroc: Essai d’onomastique judéo-marocaine. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto “B. Arias Montano”, 1978. Language: French. Page 223-224.
Menton, Arthur F. and Dekel, Gil. (2021) The Book of Destiny – Toledot Charlap – Chapter XXVI.
Guggenheimer, Heinrich W. and Guggenheimer, Eva H. (1992). Jewish family names and their origins: an etymological dictionary. USA: Ktav Publishing House, Inc. Page 840.
Guggenheimer, Heinrich W. and Guggenheimer, Eva H. (1992). Jewish family names and their origins: an etymological dictionary. USA: Ktav Publishing House, Inc. Pages 808 and 841.
שטאל, אברהם. (2005) מוצא השמות: מקורותיהם וגלגוליהם של השמות שלנו. אור יהודה: כנרת, זמורה ביתן, דביר.
Menton, Arthur F. (1999) Newsletter of The Worldwide Congregation Charlap/Yahya. Volume 10/4, page 7.
The members of Ibn Yahya family are listed on pages 636-643 in:
Laredo, Abraham Isaac. (1978) Les Noms Des Juifs Du Maroc: Essai d’onomastique judéo-marocaine. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto “B. Arias Montano”, 1978. Language: French.
Ibn Yahya, Gedaliah. (2021 ) Sefer Shalshelet HaKabbalah. 1587 editions – Venice: print house Giovanni di Gara. 2021 edition – UK: brought to publication by Gil Dekel. Page number 87; in Hebrew: .פז
Ibn Yahya, Gedaliah. (2021 ) Sefer Shalshelet HaKabbalah. 1587 editions – Venice: print house Giovanni di Gara. 2021 edition – UK: brought to publication by Gil Dekel. Page number 88; in Hebrew: .פח
Ibn Yahya, Gedaliah. (2021 ) Sefer Shalshelet HaKabbalah. 1587 editions – Venice: print house Giovanni di Gara. 2021 edition – UK: brought to publication by Gil Dekel. Page number 144; in Hebrew: .קמד
Landshuth, Eliezer Leizer (Leser) Meir. (1857) Amudei HaAvoda. Book 1. Berlin: Gershon Bernstein Print house. Page 67.
לנדסהוט, אליעזר ליזר מאיר. (1857) עמודי העבודה. מחברת א. ברלין: דפוס גרשון בערנשטיין. עמוד 67.
Carmoly, Eliakim. )1850) Sefer Divre Hayamim L’Bnei Yahya. Frankfort on the Main: the Book House of Eizack Koifman. Page 12.
The National Library of Israel lists a Quinah that starts with the same words, arguing that it is one of the central Quinah used in Tisha B’Av in the Sepharadic communities. Accessed 11 Sep 2021, from: https://web.nli.org.il/sites/nlis/he/song/pages/song.aspx?songid=283#5,52,6698,1523
Ibn Yahya, David ben Solomon (also attributed to Almoli, Solomon). ( 1505/1506) Shekel ha-kodesh: maʼamar katsar be-malekhet ha-shir. Jerusalem: Mosad ha-Rav Kuk. Page 69.
איבן יחייא, דוד בן שלמה (מיוחס גם לשלמה, אלמולי). ) 1505/1506. (שקל הקודש: מאמר קצר במלאכת השיר. ההדיר והוסיף מבוא ונספחות: חנוך ילין. ירושלים: מוסד הרב קוק. עמוד סט.
Also see: כתב־יד, מוסקווה, ספריית המדינה הרוסית, אוסף גינצבורג 652, דף 123ב – 124ב.
The typed text was provided by Doctor Avraham David.
Roth, Cecil. (1948). A Short History Of The Jewish People. London: EAST AND WEST LIBRARY. https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.177816/2015.177816.A-Short-History-Of-The-Jewish-People_djvu.txt